public broadcasting in the united states quizlet

Contents of the File. linda rubin watson today; cross country cycling blog; kevin maguire obituary; will the p ebt card be reloaded in 2021; personas mayores que repiten lo mismo muchas veces The FCCs broadcast rules are contained in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 73 (broadcast, including AM, FM, LPFM, and TV) and 74 (auxiliary broadcast, including low power TV and translator stations). Display of Internet Website Addresses. Security prices in efficient markets remain steady as new information becomes available. Surveys found that listeners in the 1930s spent an average of more than four hours a day listening to radio broadcasts. Before you file a petition to deny an application, you should check our rules and policies to make sure that your petition complies with our procedural requirements. In 2020, contributions from individuals comprised 24% of total nonpublic funding. Material terms, include those factors that define the operation of the contest and affect participation, such as entry deadlines, the prizes that can be won, and how winners will be selected. Programming AccessBroadcast Programming: Law and Policy on Specific Kinds of Programming PRX was down 10%, falling to about $37.6 million in total revenue for 2020. ), The top 20 NPR-affiliated public radio stations (by listenership) had on average a total weekly listenership of about 9 million in 2020, down 9% from 2019. (Since the amount of the check to replenish the fund plus the balance in the fund do not equal $800\$800$800, record the discrepancy in the cash short and over account.). On the television side, NewsHour derives its revenue from a variety of sources, including PBS, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and a mix of nonpublic streams such as corporations, individual giving and foundations. Audio Description. Facts of the case. As mentioned earlier, we expect station licensees to be aware of the important problems and issues facing their local communities and to foster public understanding by presenting programming that relates to those local issues. At the close of this period, the licensee must renew its stations license. [16] Since the creation of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Pacifica has sometimes received CPB support. Underwriting Announcements on Noncommercial Educational Stations Entities subject to commercial time limits under the CTA may not display a website address during or adjacent to a program if, at that time, on pages that are primarily devoted to free noncommercial content regarding that specific program or a character appearing in the program: 1) products are sold that feature a character appearing on that program; or 2) a character appearing in that program is used to actively sell products. Lowest Unit Charge The Commission often receives complaints concerning broadcast journalism, such as allegations that stations have aired inaccurate or one-sided news reports or comments, covered stories inadequately, or overly dramatized the events that they cover. Such underwriting may only issue declarative statements (including slogans) and may not include "calls to action" (i.e., the station cannot give out prices, comparative statements, or anything that would persuade the listener to patronize the sponsor). A program is considered specifically designed to serve the educational and information needs of children if: it is aired between the hours of 6 a.m. and 10 p.m.; it is a regularly scheduled weekly program, except that a licensee may air a limited amount of programming that is not regularly scheduled on a weekly basis, including educational specials and regularly scheduled non-weekly programming, and have that programming count as Core Programming, as described in the Core Programming guidelines. declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private discrimination rather than state of discrimination. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reserved the lower 5 frequencies of the band between 42.1 and 42.9 MHz for such stations; when the FM band moved in 1945 to 88-106MHz (later expanded to 108MHz), the frequencies from 88.1 to 91.9MHz were set aside for non-commercial educational stations,[9] though they are not limited to those frequencies[10] (for example, WFIU in Bloomington, Indiana has its FM frequency at 103.7MHz). This Manual is published by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the federal agency directed by Congress to regulate broadcasting. Public radio and television stations often produce their own programs as well as purchase additional programming from national producers and program distributors such as NPR, PBS, Public Radio International (PRI), American Public Television (APT), American Public Media (APM), and Public Radio Exchange (PRX). Lotteries. It is an information and education tool, accessible to all and meant for all, whatever their social or economic status. Programming Inciting Imminent Lawless Action.The Supreme Court has ruled that the government can curtail speech if it is both: (1) intended to incite or produce imminent lawless action; and (2) likely to incite or produce such action. Even when this legal test is met, any review that might lead to a curtailment of speech is generally performed by the appropriate criminal law enforcement authorities, not by the FCC. After World War II, which government institution first began drawing attention to the problem of racism in America? NPR produces its own programming (PBS, by contrast, does not create its own content, which is instead produced by select member stations and independent program distributors). Rules. While program and production expenses comprise only a portion of overall station expenses, an increase in these kinds of expenditures indicates that the stations are directing more dollars toward the creation of news content. PBS and American Public Television (formerly Eastern Educational Television Network) distribute television programs to a nationwide system of independently owned and operated television stations (some having the term "PBS" in their branding) supported largely by state and federal governments as well as viewer support (including from pledge drives that many public television outlets carry for two- to three-week periods at least twice per year, at dates that vary depending on the station or regional network), with commercial underwriters donating to specific programs and receiving a short thanks for their contributions. Manufacturers of apparatus must provide a simple and easy to use mechanism for activating the secondary audio stream, such as a button or icon. Please include your name and address if you would like information on the final disposition of your complaint; you may request confidentiality. Sponsorship Identification. (+1) 202-857-8562 | Fax You can also participate in the application process by filing a petition to deny when someone applies for a new station, when a station is being sold (technically called an assignment of the licensee), when its licensee is undergoing a major transfer of stock or other ownership or control (technically called a transfer of control), or the station proposes major facility changes. Contents of the File The emergency information may be closed captioned or presented through an alternative method of visual presentation. Licensee Discretion For purposes of the commercial limits, commercial matter is airtime sold for purposes of selling a product or service and promotions of television programs or video programming services other than childrens or other age-appropriate programming appearing on the same channel, or promotions for childrens educational and informational programming appearing on any channel. A license would be issued only if The organization has a digital operation as well. We recommend that you contact the equipment manufacturer or the store where you purchased the equipment to attempt to resolve the interference problem. [1], Individual stations and programs rely on highly varied proportions of funding. Acceptable enhanced underwriting acknowledgements of for-profit donors or underwriters may include: (1) logograms and slogans that identify but do not promote; (2) location information; (3) value-neutral descriptions of a product line or service; and (4) brand names, trade names, and product service listings. Licensee Discretion. All Class A television stations began operating digitally in 2015. (with the notable exceptions of the United States, Mexico and Brazil). (+1) 202-419-4300 | Main During the last decade, the number of newspaper journalists working in the United States has Advertising revenue at print newspapers is currently ________ what it was in 2005. Silhouette images from motion picture films were broadcast to the general public on a regular basis, at a resolution of just 48 lines. The Montgomery bus boycott began after ______ refused to give up her seat for a white man. 833683368336 is issued to replenish the fund, based on the following summary of petty cash receipts: office supplies, $295\$295$295; miscellaneous selling expense, $120\$120$120; miscellaneous administrative expense, $75\$75$75. Licensees are responsible for selecting their entertainment programming, as well as programs concerning local issues, news, public affairs, religion, sports events, and other subjects. Program and production expenses for the 123 news-oriented local public radio licensees was $500 million in 2019, compared with $487.9 million in 2018. The V-Chip and TV Program Ratings For example, stations should provide the complaining party with diagrams and descriptions that explain how and where to use radio frequency chokes, ferrite cores, filters, and/or shielded cable.;,,,, Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These efforts must include information and assistance sufficiently specific to enable the complaining party to eliminate all blanketing interference and not simply an attempt by the station to correct the problems. it is at least 30 minutes in duration, except that a licensee may air a limited amount of short-form programming, including public service announcements and interstitials, and have that programming count as Core Programming, as described in the Core Programming processing guidelines. C. reports extensively on government officials and political issues. Applications to Build New Stations: Length of the License Period. (+1) 202-419-4372 | Media Inquiries. The "peculiar institution" was a phrase used by southerners describe What was the result of the Compromise of 1877? Reasonable Access protect former slaves from discrimination in public accommodations such as hotels and theaters. Some of the larger operations split off these formats into separate stations or networks. Not until State v. The First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech similarly protects programming that stereotypes or may otherwise offend people with regard to their religion, race, national background, gender, or other characteristics. Obscene, Indecent, or Profane Programming Phone: (202) 418-1600 More information about this ratings program, including a description of each ratings category, can be found at Station Identification. If your concerns are not resolved, with the exception of complaints about obscene, indecent, or profane programming, which should be submitted in the manner described previously -- and complaints about blanketing interference discussed earlier -- the best way to provide all the information the FCC needs to process your complaint about other broadcast matters is to fully complete an on-line complaint at We license only individual broadcast stations. [2] Donations are widely dispersed to stations and producers, giving the system a resilience and broad base of support but diffusing authority and impeding decisive change and priority-setting.[3]. Although, for the reasons discussed earlier, the Commission is generally prohibited from regulating broadcast content, the courts have held that the FCCs regulation of obscene and indecent programming is constitutional because of societys interest in protecting children from potentially harmful programming and supporting parents ability to determine the programming their children will be exposed to at home. Applications and Related Materials The Commission took a number of steps to minimize the burden of the online file on broadcast stations. The applicant must demonstrate that it is qualified to construct and operate the station as specified in its application and that its proposed facility will not cause objectionable interference to any other station. Which of the following sets of terms best describes America's fundamental political values? In the Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation (CALM) Act, Congress directed the FCC to establish rules that require broadcasters and pay TV providers ensure the commercials they transmit to viewers comply with an industry-developed technical standard, the Advanced Television Systems Committees A/85 Recommended Practice. Lotteries conducted by a state acting under the authority of state law, when the advertisement or information is broadcast by a radio or TV station licensed to a location in that state or in any other state that conducts such a lottery; Gambling conducted by an Indian Tribe under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act; Lotteries authorized or not otherwise prohibited by the state in which they are conducted, and that are conducted by a not-for-profit organization or a governmental organization; and. Comments to Station or Networks Accessible User Interfaces. Which of the following statements best describes current controversies about immigration among conservatives? Shared Services Agreements The limitations on NCE stations are discussed further in this Manual. It is not a comprehensive or controlling statement of the FCCs broadcast rules and policies. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

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